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XII The Use of Vir Clarissimus as a Senatorial Title XIII Mandragora. I, 199, 10 81 XVI Endearing and complimentary Names for Women and Girls ... n 74 I, 174.4 76 I, 196, 8 77 VI CONTENTS XVIII The usual Age of Girls at Betrothal and Marriage . Gothi, Alani, Roxolani, Sarmatae, Franci, Suevi Vandali, Germani religatis manibus captivi processenint. A car, richly ornamented with gold, silver and precious stones, was one of the presents sent by the King of Persia. I am indebted to it for some supplementary remarks, which I have always acknowledged. apparently as heads), this maybe explained from the fact that the division of the office iiito two independent VOL. [Per- haps the person to whom Josephus addressed his works. 235 5 from bottom, For Carthage read Carthago nova. XI The Friends and Companions of the Em- peror ...... XV The Use of Domine as a Form of Address in ordinary Life .... ■ XIX The Use of Homeric personal Names" for Appellatives XX Roman Finds in the North. Otto Tischler, of Konigsberg) XXI Tourists' Inscriptions on the Pyramids XXII The Use of the Word Romantic as applied to natural Scenery XXIII On the Meaning of the Names Viola {(ov), Anemone, Narcissus, Hyacin- thus. XXXVII The Performance of Comedies under the later Empire XXXVIII The Performance of Tragedies under the later Empire I, 232, 27 123 I, 248, 17 131 I, 310. [legatij gentium barbararum Blemmyes, Axomitae, Arabes eudae- mones, Indi, Bactriani, Hiberi, Saraceni, Persae, cum suis quique muneribus. The treatise of Egger, Observations historiques sur la fonction de secretaire des princes chez les anciens (Paris, 1858), did not become known to me until after the first edition of this section had appeared. Although in the second century also freedmen exceptionally held theof Uceabepistu Hs {i.e.

Probably they included those of the Aethiopes and Garamantes mentioned in Rufius Festus (Brev., 19) and Victor (epit., i, 9), unless they wrote abusi vocabu Hs Vergilia- nis (Mneid, vi, 795 : super et Garamantas et Indos proferet imperium ; RCDA^. Letronne also contests the reahty of this embassy, chiefly on the ground of the absurdity of some of its state- ments, e.g. Priaulx (On the Second Indian Embassy to Rome, in Journal or the Royal A sialic Society, xviii, 345), who also regards the ambassadors as actual representatives of an actual prince, explains their false statements as due to misunderstanding, since no one but Plocamus' freedman understood their language, and that probably only very imper- fectly. This was probably one of the embassies sent by Charibael, king of the Sabaeans and Homerites of southern Arabia, to ask for the friendship ' of the Emperors ' (Vespasian and Titus, as Gutschmid also assumes) ; see Periplus Maris Erythraei, 23, and cp. _» The latter office, also held by Claudius' physician in ordinary, C.

Lastly, Reinaud (Rela- tions politigues et commerciales de V empire romain avec I'Asie orientate in Journal asiaiique, 1863), who also supports the view that there was only one embassy, considers that it was dispatched by a Bud- dhist prince of Bactriana, who is called Kanishka in a history written in Sanskrit, Kanerk6 and ^aai Xeis ^aa CKioiv on his coins (on which half the legend is Greek), and was the most powerful Indian prince of his time (see A. 135 and 140) ; further the frequently mentioned embassy of the Scythians (between the Danube and the Dnieper) and Bastarnae (in lower Moesia beyond the Danube), of the Sarmatae on both banks of the Don, of the Albani and Iberi (in Shirwan, southern Daghestan, Grusia), of the Medes and Parthians (in Atropatene ; ib., p. The em- bassies of plurinae aliae gentes are not specified by name, obviously as not being of sufficient importance. They were escorted by a freedman of Annius Plocamus, farmer of taxes on the Red Sea, who was supposed to have been cast ashore on Ceylon during a voyage round Arabia, and to have persuaded the king of the island (by his accounts of Rome and by the excellence of the Roman denarii) '■ to make overtures to the Roman Emperor. Pliny further mentions an Arabian embassy which visited Rome during his time : qui mea aetate legati ex Arabia venerunt, (de ture) omnia incertiora fecerunt (xii, 57). Suidas evideatly borrowed from a list o£ the learned mea of that age. Perhaps he is identical with the Greek rhetorician Caninius Celer, tutor of Lucius Verus {Vita Veri, 2) ; cp.

In Teuffel, RLG {Geschichte der romischen Litteratur) the numerals denote the paragraphs, which are the same in the English translation of the 5th edition by G. X Roman Names assumed by Peregrini and Freedmen ..... Gladiatorial Shows in the Middle Ages and more recent Times XXXVI List of Roman and provincial Am- phitheatres .... After enumerating the wild animals in the procession the writer proceeds : gladiatorum paria octingenta praeter captivos. On the other hand, in the second cen- tury each of the two departments appears to have been constituted an independent office, perhaps by Hadrian ; the fact that in that century officials were called ab epistulis without any further addi- tion is by no means a proof of the contrary ; for it can hardly be doubted that not only the heads, but also the subordinate officials— adjutores,proximi {CIL, xiv, 2815), tabularii, scriniarii (CIL, x, 527), ab epistulis (cp. 391) — were called simply ab epistulis for the sake of brevity. ab epistu Us, who died in his seventeenth year (Gruter, 586, 7 = CIL, vi, 8597), was no doubt only a subordinate.

IX The Order of the Ofi Sces held by Imperial Freedmen ..... XXXI How Animals were caught for the Amphitheatre .... XXXIII Executions and other Punishments carried out in the Amphitheatre XXXIV On the Velarium of the Amphitheatre XXXV Abohtion of the Gladiatorial Shows. The ordinary punctuation must, however, be altered ; perhaps the word legati (although not indispensable) has dropped out. In spite of this division, however, the supreme control (at least after the time of Claudius, when these three court offices first acquired their great importance) was evidently in the hands of a single director ; this is proved by the high position which Narcissus held together with Callistus and Pallas and could only hold as ex- clusive head of his office, and from the fact that Abascantus under Domitian carried on the correspondence with both the Greek and Latin speaking provinces. Protogenes ab epistulis, Gruter, 586, 5 = Mura- tori, 901, 2.

II, 107, 30 257 II, 108, 7 263 II, 118, 20 263 II, 120, 12 264 II, 121, 22 267 II, 122, 21 268 II, 133, 2 270 n, 139, 19 II, 140 II, 209, 31 n, 217, 33 II, 224 s. Letronne, who wrongly throws doubt even upon this Indian embassy, believes (with Reimarus) that it came from southern Arabia (included under India), and was due to the recent ^ Quod pares pondere dei^ani esseiit, cum diversae imag;ines indicaxent a pluribus factos, 1 6 Appendices [vol. conquest of Arabia Petraea by Palma (Dio, Ixviii, 14). The ambassadors were present at the spec- tacles provided by Trajan where they occupied the seats of the senators. Caesare militasse epistularumque et legationum, simul et anuli curam habuisse.

After his return to Rome (io5) from the Dacian war Trajan received numerous embassies from barbarian peoples, including Indians (Dio, Ixviii, 15 : Tr Xeio-Tai 8(rai ■wpea^eia.i irapci, papflipuv S.\av re Kai 'Ii/Sdv).

The statue of Augustus on- an elephant biga (the first of its kind, Pliny, xxxiv, 19) appears first on coins of this period, and stood over the arch of the Milvian bridge, which was finished in 16 B. Further, no special reason was needed for the decree of an elephant car, since Pompey had already desired to make his entry 14 Appendices [vol. in one on the occasion of his African triumph (8i B. 305, says : The Chinese annals dearly insinuate that Kan Ying (a.d. Appendices 15 British princes : vwl fj.4p Toi rdv cwaa-rwv rivh idv airidi Trpea^e Oaeai Kai depaireia LS Ka Ta(TK€va.(raf J.€vot tt,! ., son of Commus, whose coins have been found, especially in Sussex (RGDA^, p. Ambassadors from the Garamantes also visited Rome in the reign of Tiberius (a.d. 398 and authorities there given : CIG, 1625 ; Keil, Syll. Aristides says that Plato had appeared to him in a dream and asked him, TQi6s rt?

Borghesi {CEuvres, ii, 96) has certainly shown it to be very probable that amongst the marks of respect decided upon by the senate on the occasion of Augustus's return to Rome in 19 B. was an entry on a car drawn by elephants (of which certainly Augustus made no use) . 105) expresses the belief that the elephants brought by the Indian ambassadors in 20 B. (to which he refers the statement of Florus) suggested this distinction, and Mommsen [RGDA^, p. But the omission of the elephants in Nicolaus would be as inexplicable as that of the tigers ; hence, Florus must be referring to another Indian embassy (of which Augustus according to the saepe of the Monumentum Ancyranum had received at least three). 335 J, whether he was still in office at that time.

Letronne rightly con- siders this incredible, but admits that the embassy might really have been sent by a prince of northern India (cp. The embassies which Julian received at Constantinople in 362 were intended for Constantius (Zonaras : ixpvi^o-'''i-i^ S^ kh I Trp^a-peaii/ ck Sia^opwv i Bvdv d Td Xeiai irpiis riv Koiv(TTdi'riov) and, as Gibbon has observed (chap, xxiv),' could not possibly have arrived in time, if they had not been dispatched till after Julian's accession, as is asserted by Ammianus (xxii, 7, 10) : proinde timore ejus per finitimos longeque distantes explicato, legationes undique solito ocius concurrebant : hinc Transtigritanis pacem obsecrantibus et Armeniis, inde nationibus Indicis certati cum donis optimates mittentibus ante tempus (? 13.) From the facts at our disposal we can only form an incomplete and conjectural estimate of the population of Rome. I assume the reader to be acquainted with the examination of the subject by E. Duruy {Hist, des Romains, v, 16) remarks : En pleine civilisation moderne le nombre des enfans trouves a et6 en France de 125,997 en 1861, malgre la suppression des tours, avec une moyenne annuelle de 203 infanticides. 108, i) ; as early as 1796 it reached 50,000 (out of about 800,000 births ; in the foundling hospitals | of the foster-children died ; see Sybel, Geschichte der Revolutionszeit, iv, 440).

ij Xiov), who reported that Indian princes rendered homage to Constantine by setting up paintings and statues of him. 305, and on the despatch of a Syrian merchant Ts'in-lun to Ta-ts'in with lo male and 10 female dwarfs (222-252), whose arrival is not mentioned in the Chinese annals). It is perhaps doubtful whether the effects of infanticide and exposure (Marquardt, Pnvaileben der Romer, i^, 3 and 4) were more ruinous than the enormous infant morta Uty of modern times, the reasons of which are well known. It concludes (in de- scending scale) : [misso] ad juniores legendos per Aemiliam ab epistulis Graecis cur. The ab epistulis in the first century, so far as they are known from inscriptions, have already for the most part been enumerated by Borghesi v (TTpareviiirav Iwapxos, ib., 8, 2)', and was no doubt a freed - ^ Mommsea v Si Kal di Sdf TKa Xos Hapdeviou to O TLKOv' pt-adrfriis Si X.atp-^povo^ Tou 0i Xo(r60oi;, 6v Kal Sie Si^aro e V *A\e^av Speii^. The gram- marian might be the father and teacher of the poet.

IV Embassies to Roman Emperors from foreign Countries .... XXVI Representations of Gladiators (and Venator es) in Works of Art XXVII The gladiatorial Tesserae. XLI The Contests in the Actian Agon at Nicopolis .... LIII Marble and Bronze as Materials for Statues ..... LV Borrowing from the Controversiae of the Elder Seneca in the Gesta Romanorum .... The Indian embassy to Elagabalus, which the Gnostic Bardesanes met, is the first whose reality is admitted by Letronne, although not entirely without reserve. From the name of one of the am- bassadors (Sandanes), Lassen concludes that the sender of the embassy ruled over that part of the Malabar coast which is called Ariake of the Sandani and less correctly Sandani ; in Stobaeus, however, the name is Xavdd XT)! In the description of Aurelian's great triumph (a.d. As Hirschfeld observes (VG, 202, 3), itja the latter that is meant by Suetonius, when he says that Augustus ' ofiicium epistularura detuhf to Horace. , ^;£m§.,,-^57 epistulis legendis ac rescribendis; rather rescribea^e) epistulis amicorum suf&ciebam, nunc occupatis- simus etiafirmus Horatium nostrum a te cupio abducere : veniet ergs-ab ista parasitica mensa ad hanc regiam, et nos in scribendis epistulis juvabit.

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