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it is obvious from the text of the Mah Nishtannah that at some stage in the development of the seder service this part of the ritual followed rather than preceded the meal.) The company then continues with the second part of the Haggadah. The sections are kaddesh (the Kiddush), u-reḥaẓ ("washing" of the hands), karpas (eating the "herbs" dipped in saltwater), yaḥaẓ ("dividing" the middle matzah), maggid (the "narration"), raḥaẓ ("washing" the hands for the meal), moẓi-matzah (the "benediction" over the matzah), maror (eating the "bitter herbs"), korekh (eating "bitter herbs with matzah"), shulḥan orekh (the "meal"), ẓafun (eating of the fikoman – the "last maẓẓah"), barekh ("Grace after Meals"), hallel (recitation of the second part of Hallel), and nirẓah (the closing formula). They were not concerned with the investigation of the historical aspect of the Haggadah and did not refer to the sources of its different texts. Jacob Moses Lorberbaum (of Lissa), and Moses Sofer (Schreiber) who wove their homiletic compositions round and into the Passover Haggadah. Ḥayyim Joseph David Azulai (18 century did scholars begin to analyze the text, to clarify its sources, and to determine the original wording. Some halakhic works also contain the text of and commentaries on the Haggadah.(16) Shefokh Ḥamatkha ("Pour out Thy wrath") is a collection of verses whose theme is a supplication for vengeance on the nations that have oppressed Israel. This Passover Haggadah and seder ritual follows the practice of the Pumbedita and Sura academies of Babylonia and was adopted by all the Jewish communities in the Diaspora. This simple explanatory type of commentary came to a close in the 15 century, the commentators included material of their own in their expositions, both as an elaboration on the narrative and as a discussion of philosophical and theological concepts. Isaac Abrabanel in Zevaḥ Pesaḥ (Venice, 1545; figure 3) poses 100 questions which he answers at length. Others are found in daily or festival prayer books; the majority, however, are separate works for use on the eve of Passover only.

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Its narrative is a collection of excerpts from the Bible, Mishnah, and Midrash, interpolated with the ritual performances: the Kiddush , the benedictions recited on the performance of precepts, and for food, Grace after Meals , and the Hallel . Many recensions of the Haggadah, differing from one another to a greater or lesser degree, have been preserved in various manuscripts, mostly dating from the 13 century, and also in fragments from the Cairo Genizah .

Some halakhic works also contain the text of, and commentaries on, the Haggadah (see below: Manuscripts and Editions).

In keeping with its compilatory character and the varied nature of its sources, the literary or logical nexus between the different sections of the Haggadah is not always discernible.

The quotations, derived from a multiplicity of sources, have mostly been adapted to the needs of the seder service. It is not specific to the seder service but is prescribed for all the festivals.

This formula passed through a number of stages till it assumed the forms which are to be found in the different recensions that are in use today. (11) Kammah Ma'alot Tovot la-Makom Aleinu ("How many goodly favors has the Almighty bestowed upon us") is a poem in two versions which is preserved only in the Passover Haggadah. Goldschmidt, whose commentaries were published in articles or in book form.

(4) Avadim Hayinu ("We were bondmen") is an introduction to the formal narration of the exodus from Egypt, based on the views of Samuel (Pes. Passages of unknown origin supplement the narration stressing its importance. The poem was composed during the Second Temple period and seems to have no direct connection with the seder service. It explains the significance of the Passover sacrifice, the unleavened bread, and the bitter herbs. 10:5), it was reworded (in a question-and-answer form) during the post-talmudic period. Buber, 1886), in which are incorporated some annotations by Isaiah di Trani , as well as interesting novellae, by the author's brother. Through the generations the Passover Haggadah has been one of the most popular works – perhaps the most popular – in Jewish religious literature.

It has been printed several times (Pressburg, 1879; Odessa, 1883; Vilna, 1900; Ramleh, 1953). Landshuth (Maggid me-Reshit, with an introduction, 1855); J. Eisenstein (Oẓar Perushim ve-Ẓiyyurim al Haggadah shel Pesaḥ, 1920); C. Goldschmidt (with a commentary in Hebrew; 1947) and with an introduction on the history of the Haggadah and the texts of all the midrashic and paytanic additions in 1960; and M. centuries the Passover Haggadah was one of the most popular Hebrew illuminated manuscripts in Sephardi as well as Ashkenazi or Italian communities.

Haggadah editions based on scientific analysis and research are by: H. The popularity of the Haggadah for embellishment at that time was the result of the fusion of several factors.

The observance of the precepts at the seder – the eating of the pesaḥ (the paschal sacrifice ), matzah ("unleavened bread"), and maror ("bitter herbs"); the drinking of arba kosot ("four cups of wine"); and the recital of the story of the exodus from Egypt (the narrative of the Haggadah) were integrated into this banquet celebration.

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