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Less expensive precious metals used in jewellery-making include silver and platinum, as well as alloys like bronze, and non-precious metals like copper and steel.

As well as metals, other materials used in the art of jewellery manufacture include precious and semi-precious gemstones.

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This is a process used to create raised or sunken designs in a sheet of metal.

One popular type of embossing is Repoussé - a technique in which a malleable metal sheet is shaped by hammering from the reverse side in order to create a design in low relief.

Diamonds are traditionally the most highly prized gems, and vary in colour from yellow to bluish white.

Other precious stones are rubies (red), emeralds (green) and sapphires (blue), plus less costly chrysoberyl (yellow/green) topaz (yello/blue) and zircon (brown/translucent).

Another related embossing technique is known as Chasing.

This is the opposite technique to repousse, in that while repousse works on the reverse of the metallic sheet to create a raised pattern on the front, chasing is used to create designs on the front of the sheet by sinking the surface of the metal.Pearls, though of animal origin rather than mineral, are also regarded as gemstones.Popular semi-precious stones used by jewellery designers include: amethyst (violet/purple), garnet (deep-red), opal (milky white), aquamarine (bluish/green), jade (green), lapis lazuli (blue), malachite (bright green).The traditional goldsmith's technique of enamelling, which dates back to late Roman and early Byzantine art, involves the coating of metal with vitreous enamel (porcelain enamel), a material made from molten glass which hardens to a smooth, durable coating.Enamel can be transparent, opaque or translucent, while a wide range of different colours and hues may be added to the smelted glass by mixing it with various minerals, like the metal oxides cobalt, iron, neodymium, praseodymium and others.An important type of Egyptian art as well as the more nomadic Celtic culture, jewellery was a feature of Byzantine art in Medieval Kiev, African art throughout the Dark Continent, Oceanic art across the Pacific and both Aztec and Inca culture in the Americas.

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