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During the summer, the so called latewood formation starts, and around the middle of September the radial growth of the tree stops and rests up to the next spring. Besides the differences in structure, two species of wood differ physiologically: in ring-porous wood the latest growth ring fulfils the major task of water transport and, consequently, a new ring must be formed every year.

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If the last ring under the bark has been preserved, it provides the exact date—even the season–when the tree was cut.

In preparing oak panels for paintings, panel makers usually cut normally the planks radially.

Dendrochronolgical analyses on art objects Dendrochronology is a discipline of biological sciences which determines the age of wooden objects.

This method is used primarily for dating archaeological and architectural objects, but may also aid in investigating art-historical problems The main goal is to offer at least a terminus post-quem for the creation of a painting by determining the felling date of the tree which provided the wood for the panel.

Even curves considered quite ‘long’ sometimes do not provide the necessary characteristic patterns which would help to date the curve.

There are many variables involved; sometimes dating is possible with as few as fifty tree rings, but sometimes even one hundred rings may not be enough. Sapwood estimation and seasoning Identification of the year the tree was felled is the most important information the art historian can learn from the dendrochronologist.

Hence, under adverse climatic conditions, the trees do not need to form a growth ring every year and may be characterized by totally or partially missing rings.

On the other hand some growth increments may be formed in one year.

Dendrochronology focuses on the annual periodicity of growth which is controlled by the climate, e.g. In cool and temperate climates, there is a dormant season from autumn to spring and a growth season during the summer.

When the vegetative period begins, new cells for the transport of water from the roots to the top of the tree are formed.

It is more convenient to take measurements in the laboratory using a machine.

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